Written by Memuna Forna- Insight.

Yesterday’s Pitch Night to hear sustainable commercial solutions to Sierra Leone’s single-use plastic problem, held at the EU Delegation at Leicester Peak, highlighted the potential of the private sector in Sierra Leone to be solutions providers instead of problem causers.The event, which was a collaboration between the EU and Innovation SL, was organised within the framework of EU Climate Diplomacy Week and EU Green Week on the theme of nature and biodiversity. It followed a clean-up of Lumley Beach, on Saturday 10th October, which was organised by the EU and was a stark reminder of the extent of Sierra Leone’s plastic problem.

In his introduction Tom Vens, EU Ambassador, said: “From what we saw on the beach during Saturday’s clean-up, it is clear that the biggest problem is plastic. It requires all of us to think creatively about solutions and alternatives. That is why we are here tonight.

”The importance of identifying locally-led solutions was echoed by Francis Stevens-George, CEO of Innovation SL, who added:

“Freetown Pitch Night focuses on the circular economy, which is based on eliminating the use of finite resources and the production of waste. For this to become a reality in Sierra Leone, we need to encourage entrepreneurs to come up with solutions to our existing waste problem.”

According to the rules of pitch night, each of the three entrepreneurs had a slim five minutes to pitch their ideas. With a trip abroad, sponsored by Brussels Airlines and the EU, to allow the winning pitcher to develop their business ideas, the stakes were considerable.

The panel of business, diplomatic and public sector leaders included – EU Ambassador, Tom Vens; Irish Ambassador, Lesley Ni Bhriain; Dep German Ambassador – Patrick Dzierzon; MD of Brussels airlines, Estelle Van Eeckhout and PJ Mandewa-Cole, DSTI.

The winning pitch came from John Sawo Koroma, who has an established small business making cotton bags, rucksacks and handbags out of Africana fabric, and wanted to extend his production of reusable cotton shopping bags to replace single-use plastic bags.Despite the competitive nature of the competition, the judges emphasised that collaboration in identifying and implementing solutions, across the private sector, was essential for change to be impactful and sustainable.

Tom Vens said: “The problem of plastic waste in Sierra Leone is still small enough to be tackled, particularly if we think creatively about partnerships with the private sector. They are part of the problem, but they can also be part of the solution, as we saw here this evening.”

By Memuna Forna- Insight Magazine. There can’t be anyone who has not experienced Sierra Leone’s problem with plastic waste. Abandoned plastic bags, water sachets and bottles litter the streets. They clog gutters and drainage channels, increasing the risk of flooding in our already flood-prone country. They wash up onto the beach, deter tourists, poison our fishing stocks and threaten the environment. Our plastic waste problem disproportionately affects the health and livelihoods of poorer and more vulnerable communities. It devastates agriculture, fishing and tourism, and according to a recent report dumped and burned rubbish, especially plastic waste, is responsible for the death of one person every 30 seconds in developing countries. We are not alone. This is a continent-wide problem, and has prompted 34 countries to introduce either total or partial bans on single-use plastic, making Africa world-leaders in the fight against plastic. Many would argue that the urgency of the situation in Sierra Leone, demands a similarly urgent response, particularly because we lack functioning large-scale collection and recycling infrastructure. However, the reality is that single use plastic in Sierra Leone plays a significant role in the daily lives of much of the country’s population and without alternatives in place, a plastic ban could create other problems. Some of the considerations that could derail Sierra Leone’s attempts to reduce plastic use, include the importance of packaged sachet water as a source of drinking water, particularly in urban areas, or communities without access to clean water; the use of plastic bags as ‘flying toilets’ to dispose of human waste, in the many communities without proper sanitation facilities; the use of plastic bags to distribute and store food; and the fact we have a domestic plastic packaging industry. But these considerations are not insurmountable, and the European Union in Sierra Leone is collaborating with Innovation SL on a special Freetown Pitch Night (14th October – 5-7pm) to hear three entrepreneurs pitch commercially viable and sustainable solutions to single use plastic in Sierra Leone, which will take us several steps closer to becoming a plastic-free society. The event is organised within the framework of EU Climate Diplomacy Week and EU Green Week on the theme of nature and biodiversity. Our three entrepreneurs will be pitching to a panel of judges made up of Tom Vens – the EU Ambassador, Lesley Ní Bhriain – the Irish Ambassador, Mr Patrick Dzierzon – the Deputy German Ambassador, Estelle Van Eeckhout – the MD of Brussels Airlines in Sierra Leone and PJ Mandewa-Cole from the Department of Science, Technology and Innovation. Freetown Pitch Night – the entrepreneurs and innovators pitching event, which gives budding entrepreneurs the chance to pitch their ideas, solicit feedback, advice and potential partnerships has become the go-to platform for business innovation in Sierra Leone. Francis Stevens, CEO of Innovation SL and the organiser of Freetown Pitch Night says:
“An ecosystem that provides a platform for new and innovative ideas to be discovered and for an ecosystem enabler such as the EU to be part of this discovery process is the essence of Freetown Pitch Night.”
The winning business idea will be helped to develop their idea, with a trip abroad, sponsored by the EU and Brussels Airlines. Initiatives being pitched include: Seaweed based bottles, water sachets and bottle caps: Alhassan Sesay, founder of the Sierra Leone School Green Club (SLSGC), an environmental and agricultural organisation proposes replacing water sachets, bottles and plastic containers using a product made from seaweed, which will in turn make use of Sierra Leone’s annual seaweed invasion into a benefit. Eco-friendly grocery bags, food packaging, cups, bottles, dishes: Kisimi Kayleemasa Kamara, founder of eWoman Sierra Leone, is a Software Engineer who is replacing single use plastic bags, bottles and packaging with raffia grocery bags, banana leaves food wrappers/dishes, bamboo cups/bottles and coconut shell cups/dishes. Replacing single-use plastic bags: John Sawo-Koroma, founder of CraftyBee Fashion World produces a range of affordable fabric bags including a 100% cotton fabric shopping bag, which is durable, reusable and biodegradable and intended as a replacement to plastic bags. Watch Freetown Pitch Night – Replacement of Single Plastic Use on the 14th October (5-7pm) via Facebook Live @EUinSierraLeone or @FreetownPitchNight. By Memuna Forna- Insight Magazine.
Orange Social Venture Prize 2020

Innovation SL- Freetown Pitch Night, for the second year organized the Orange Social Venture Prize Sierra Leone.

What is the OSVP?

The Orange Social Venture Prize in Africa and Middle-East aims at promoting Social Innovation for development, thanks to information and communication technologies. Having become a benchmark contest, the Orange Social Venture Prize in Africa and the Middle East (POESAM) rewards the best technological projects with a positive impact in Africa and the Middle East.  The competition is organised in two stages: first a national competition in 17 countries; then an international jury chooses the Grand Prix winners.

OSVP Sierra Leone

OSVP Sierra Leone is part of Orange’s  Innovation Strategy and its Corporate Social Responsibility Policy,  organised in partnership with Innovation SL- Freetown Pitch Night. The competition is open to both Males and Females, aged 21 years and above, whose business ideas or businesses have existed for less than three years, and propose technological solutions with a  positive impact in essential fields such as education, healthcare, agriculture, mobile payment or sustainable development, to improve the living conditions of women (women’s independence, creating or maintaining jobs, data collection on gender, digital inclusion and financial inclusion, etc.).  This year’s competition is the OSVP 2nd edition held in Sierra Leone, since 2019.

Innovation SL /GEN SL/Freetown Pitch Night: Implementing Partner

The Freetown Pitch Night is the most successful gathering of entrepreneurs, a crucial and perhaps the most significant part of the Networking assets of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Sierra Leone. The Freetown Pitch Night provides budding entrepreneurs in Sierra Leone the opportunity to pitch their ideas or post revenue business. At Pitch Night entrepreneurs provide a holistic view of their business to a vibrant Sierra Leonean entrepreneur community, allowing them to market their business, and solicit feedback, advice and potential partnerships. 

Freetown Pitch Night is run by Innovation SL, an Entrepreneurship Support Organisation (ESO) and an Innovation & Technology Management company that engages in the following;

  • Developing digital and technology solutions; contributing to a digital infrastructure to enable the development and growth of digital entrepreneurs.
  • Own Co working space, Incubator and Accelerator (Innovations Axis)
  • Freetown Pitch Night – a monthly pitch event;
  • Implementation partners for Global Entrepreneurship Network – GEN Sierra Leone. Running several programs- Start Up Huddle, Global Entrepreneurship Week, Future Agro Challenge, Creative Business Cup, Entrepreneurship World Cup
  • A service provider focusing on technology transfer; business development services; enhancing the role of Innovation in the public sector; and entrepreneurship development through donor funding.
  • Providing contextual intelligence and insight to SMEs/others in Sierra Leone to enable innovation and growth.
  • dialoguing and engaging for and on entrepreneurship development with interested stakeholders including government (national and local), development partners and academia.

OSVP Event Details

The 2nd Edition of the OSVP competition was held live on Sierra Leone Broadcasting corporation (SLBC) National TV, and streamed live on Freetown’s PitchNight facebook page,  on the 25th  September, 2020.

Prior to final selection for national pitchers, application screening, assessments and evaluation by different judges was done and five(5)  startups were selected. Another assessment by different judges led to the selection of  the top three  finalists who pitched at the Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation( SLBC) National TV.

The top five startups for this years competition;

  1. Mark Aiah Fomba

Digital Money Transfer using Automatic Telling Machine-ATM- Local ATM

This machine is a Digital electronic based payment system that allows people to carry out their simple banking operations or transaction in an easy,  safe and secure manner, and without a bank account.  You  simply receive a pin code that enables you to cash out your money with a minimum charge rate.

  • Isatu Mozetta Kabbia

Ebocare:Body Wash

Ebocare is a natural homemade body wash that   cleanses and replenishes all skin types.

  1. Yusif Erik Lakoh                                                     

KepifriSoap/DetergentManufacturing Enterprise (KeSMen-SL)

KepifriSoap/DetergentManufacturing Enterprise is a Soap processing and manufacturing  company.

  • Isata Jalloh 

Stem Garage

 Stem garage is a proposed flagship of projects 1835 which hopes to help  young people access coding and other fourth industrial revolution skill sets in Bo city.

  • Bayoh Turay

Salone Agric Markit

Tech builder is an information technology company that is focusing on building an online agricultural platform that gives accessibility to both farmers and buyers to inter-connect worldwide as well as locally.  

OSVP 2020, National competition Judges 

Emeka Okafor

He is the Curator of TED Global in Africa, Co-Founder of the TED Fellows program and Maker Faire Africa, and author of the publicly acclaimed blogs, Timbuktu Chronicles (entrepreneurship, science, and technology in Africa) and Africa Unchained (governance, policy, education, and institutional development in Africa). Okafor recently co-founded KICHIN, a West African food & beverage accelerator aimed at rapidly scaling existing food entrepreneurs with high-growth potential (KICHIN is currently seeking additional investors and partners–message him if you’re interested in talking).

He is a contributing author to the book, Worldchanging: A User’s Guide for the 21st Century (Abrams Books, 2006) and has been featured in numerous interviews, articles and blogs on science & innovation, including the NPR TED Radio Hour (Africa: The Next Chapter, 2012) and most recently in MIT’s Journal of Design & Science (Issue 4: Decentralizing Biotech, October 2018).

Okafor serves on the board of the Gearbox International Foundation and was previously a board member for Samasource. He is a former advisor to the X-Prize Foundation and Students for the Advancement of Global Entrepreneurship (SAGE) and was also a Global Poptech Fellow.

Okafor is an entrepreneur and venture strategist. He has advised governments and world leaders on innovation & entrepreneurship systems and policy for Africa, including President Obama’s Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI) in 2014 and the U.S. State Department at the White House Maker Faire in 2014, he spoke in the Roosevelt Room to top U.S. officials on the global impact of Africa’s Maker Movement. He has been a speaker, panelist and judge at numerous innovation events around the world, including New Museum’s IDEA City, Maker Faire Mexico City & TEDxEuston, on topics ranging from biosciences to emergent systems to the future of decentralized manufacturing.

Edleen B. Elba

Edleen B. Elba, is a Chartered Global Management Accountant and HR Practitioner with two decades of work experience within various industries across the public and private sectors. She is the Founder and Managing Director of JobSearch. She is also an IFC/LPI trained Trainer and Co-Founder of Institute of Human Resources Sierra Leone.

Memuna Janneh

Memuna Janneh is a BI & Business Systems expert and Sociopreneur, with a client footprint in over a dozen countries in Europe, USA, Middle East and Africa.

Memuna is owner/director of Sierra Leone’s premier catering and dining company, Cassava & Co and its affiliate charity LunchBoxGift (LBG).

With a strong focus on nutrition, childhood literacy and primary school education, LBG serves thousands of free school meals each year, boosting attendance and providing nutrition & sustenance to underprivileged children in Sierra Leone.

It also operates mobile library services and education radio clubs in rural communities. LBG receives no donor support for its primary activities and takes great pride in the fact that it is almost exclusively funded by the operations of Cassava & Co.

This autonomous social enterprise model enables LBG to provide responsive, flexible, purpose-built, needs-driven solutions to its beneficiaries.

For more information:

Abu Kamara

Abu Kamara has over 19 years of entrepreneurship experience.

He is the Co-Founder & President of Grovara, the 1st B2B Global Marketplace for Wellness Brands. Grovara is transforming the way retailers discover brands, gain insights and make purchases for their stores.

Grovara marketplace connects retailers with hundreds natural and organic brands, from product discovery, order processing, to payments and fulfilment, all in a single marketplace

Abu Kamara is Passionate about entrepreneurship as the key driver in development across Africa

He plans to launch an Africa Focused Venture Fund that will be HQ in Sierra Leone, to invest in startups across the continent

Alimatou Mbaye

Alimatou Mbaye is the Marketing and Communication Director at Orange Sierra leone

She came to  Sierra Leone in August 2019 after  a long experience on telecommunication, specially on team coaching and project delivery on time and quality.

Her  reality and dream is to accompany the new generation to achieve their projects with  appropriate tools of monitoring.


Bayoh Turay who pitched on an online agricultural  platform  called salone agric markit, that  gives access to both farmers and buyers to interconnect emerged the winner of the OSVP 2020 competition .

Bayoh Turay was awarded a Fly box plus Monthly subscription over a period of 1 year (fair usage policy applies), a Certificate of participation, and a  Cash Prize of SLL 20millions.

The 1st runner up, Isata Jalloh  pitched on a project that helps  young people access coding and other fourth industrial revolution skill sets in Bo city. She was awarded a Fly box plus  Monthly subscription over a period of 1 year (fair usage policy applies), a Certificate of participation, and  a Cash Prize of SLL 10millions.

The 2nd runner up Mark Aiah Fomba pitched on a  digital electronic based payment system that allows people to carry out simple banking  transactions without a bank account.  He was awarded a  Fly box plus  Monthly subscription over a period of 1 year (fair usage policy applies), a Certificate of participation and Cash Prize of SLL 5millions.

The fourth and Fifth finalists were given a Wifi plus Monthly subscription over a period of 1 year (fair usage policy applies) and Certificate  of participation  for each.CategoriesCompetitionEcosystemOSVP

Climate Diplomacy Week 2020

The European Union Delegation to Sierra Leone and Freetown Pitch Night is organizing a Pitch Event to mark EU Delegation to Sierra Leone Climate Diplomacy Week 2020.
The theme is Replacement of Single Plastic Use.
The winner stands a chance to win a foreign travel sponsored by the EU and Brussels Airlines for the purpose of improving their idea.
During Climate Diplomacy Weeks, EU Delegations and embassies of several EU Member States around the world hold various events to foster dialogue and cooperation on climate change, showcase success stories and inspire further action.

The event will take place on October 14th 2020, from 5pm-7pm. It will be streamed live via the facebook page of Freetown Pitch Night.


The first edition of Freetown Pitch Night 2020 was held at the British Council, on the 11th March 2020; Time 18:30-20:30 (6:30-8:30).

The theme for this edition was SDG 2- End Hunger.


How can we achieve Zero Hunger in Sierra Leone:  The SDG2 aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people–especially children–have sufficient and nutritious food all year. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural, supporting small-scale farmers and equal access to land, technology and markets.

Entrepreneurs have a role to play in meeting this goal. Freetown Pitch Night put out a call to entrepreneurs to send in their ideas on achieving Zero Hunger in Sierra Leone. Out of 10 entries, 5 were chosen to pitch.

The Event

Madam Emily Fanday, the cheerful and energetic host of the Freetown Pitch Night opened the event with individual prayers. She then proceeded to highlight some shocking statistics relating to food and hunger around the globe. From her statistics, one out of night people still go to bed on an empty stomach. Even more – one in three – suffer from some form of malnutrition.

A brief statement on the background of the Freetown Pitch Night was given by Mr. Francis Stevens George, the Managing Director of Innovation SL.

The Freetown pitch night was graced by dignitaries from various sectors; in her opening, the keynote speaker Madam Nyabenyi Tito Tipo[1], the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) representative to Sierra Leone cited that “Albert Einstein did not have a computer to work with and yet, he made impactful contributions to mankind; therefore young entrepreneurs in Sierra Leone can do more with all the modern communications technology available to them.”

The four personalities with a wealth of experience constituted the panel of judges were Mr. Emeka Okafor; Directoraite of Science, Technology and Innovation (DSTI), Alimamy Sesay; World Food Program, Mr. Kishin Sham Mahtani; Project Manager at Shakandas Group, Ms. Hannah Max McCarthy from Wonder Stove.

David Meek Jah, Melvin H. Foray, Seinya Amie Bakarr, Abdul Aziz Mansaray and Alie M. Koroma were the five that pitch their ideas on to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) – 2/ Zero hunger.

David Meek Jah

David meek Jah value preposition is Digital economy Infrastructure for agriculture to increase production by Data analytics and Real-time Monitoring of farms. The proposed solution leverages satellite technology to enable crops to be monitored efficiently, which involves Geo- tag a few control farm, Soil moisture monitoring. David meek Jah asks for Technical partnership with local and central government. Technical partnership with national and regional regulators in the produce sector, technical partnership with Telcos and Technical partnerships with Central Banks, commercial Banks, and MDAs.

David meek Jah                                                                                                                                 
Tel/whatsapp: +23234436465

Melvin H. Foray

Melvin H. Foray`s from Mello Foods transforms agricultural produce into healthy, conveniently accessible, and affordable food products (package green-leaves) directly from farm-to-market that are efficiently manufactured. Mello Foods produce vegetable products through automated production: improving availability and affordability; impacting nutritional levels of the diets of poor households. Mello food needs Machinery & Equipment, Financial Investment. Partnership and human resources.

Melvin Foray
Tel/whatsapp: +23278284374

Seinya Amie Bakarr

Seinya Amie Bakarr from Jalimi farms pitch on snail farming.  Jalimi Farms provides a one-stop-solution that helps to increase yield, increase income and provide training for coastal farmers. Jalimi farms promote sustainable agriculture and mitigate lack of access to basic farming advances and unsustainable practices by utilizing innovative technology in snail farming.

Seinya Amie Bakarr                                                                                                                
Tel/whatsapp: +23278221295 or +23299974050

Abdul Aziz Mansaray

Abdul Aziz Mansaray pitched on addressing the challenge of malnutrition and severe hunger among primary school pupils. His solution is production of nutritious rich fresh fruits and vegetables. He emphasized the essence of his solution is to ensure growth, development and to create awareness of fruits and vegetables eating habits. He seek to offer on-time delivery of nutritional fresh fruits and vegetables and he is looking for investment opportunity to enhance seeds and inputs, farming equipment, Greenhouse and packaging equipment, Irrigation system and Warehouse and transportation.

Abdul Aziz Mansaray                                                                                                              
Tel/whatsapp: +23276764534

Alie M. Koroma

 Alie M. Koroma focused his presentation on empowering subsistence farmers to produce large food products by creating linkages between farmer organisations to Agro processor, and the market. He offers organic product marketing, value addition in food, nutritional security and embrace new technology for knowledge transfer. Alie M. Koroma is looking for mentorship and human resource, financial investment and farming equipment.

Alie M. Koroma                                                                                                                                             
Tel/whatsapp: +23288870295/+23276886678

Mohamed Samu

Mohamed Samu, a graduate from Njala University; developed a Utility Mobile App which he named “Help the Farmer” that determine soil moisture content. According to him, it is also a pest and disease detector which determine the soil fertility, pH and nutrient levels. It has the ability to ascertain high quality and sustainable processing of crops. He was given five minutes to make a presentation about his App to the audience while the judges went to decide their verdict.

Utility mobile app link

Madam Nyabenyi Tito Tipo announced that Seinya Amie Bakarr emerged as the third best pitcher, David Meek Jah second, and Melvin Foray the winner.  Madam Nyabemi Tippo motivated all the pitchers by saying “there are no losers at the Freetown pitch night”.

On behalf of the judges, Mr. Kishin said the five pitches were excellent and it was a tight call to choose amongst the five pitchers.

Madam Tuzlyn Bayoh from UNDP Accelerator Lab gave the vote of thanks; in her statement, she encouraged the pitchers to continue their brilliant work and also thank all partners and individuals for contributing to the achievement of the United Nations` Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

The event ended with cross section of attendees posing for pictures and networking.

The event is managed by GEN SL and innovation SL; officially sponsored by Mutzig, other sponsors were Ecobank Microfinance, Brussels airlines and capital foods. Implementation partners: GEN SL, British council, Cordaid, Insight Magazine, Innovation SL and Innovations Axis.

Juliet Josiah, Intern Innosl,  FPN Producer

Foday Kamara, Intern Innosl


[1] Ms Nyabenyi Tito Tipo on 23rd June, 2016 presented her credential to the Government of Sierra Leone through the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.

Ms Tipo becomes the first female FAO Representative to Sierra Leone since the country became a member of the organisation in 1978. She joined FAO in 2012 as Livestock Officer in Juba, and from 2014 to May 2016, she has served as Assistant FAO Representative, Programme in the FAO Representation in South Sudan.

Nyabenyi Tipo has a rich experience in humanitarian, gender and animal health programme management.

At the FAO Representation in South Sudan, she developed a comprehensive decentralised plan of the cold chain system in South Sudan to support the livestock vaccination calendar; developed the livestock component of Emergency Livelihood Program (ELRP) after the December 2013 political crises; lead the development of FAO South Sudan Country Program Framework; and lead the resilience outcome of the UN Interim Cooperation Framework (ICF 2016 – 2017).

Pitch Night under Covid-19

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, it is with regret we must announce that the Freetown Pitch Night has been temporarily suspended. Nevertheless, we have decided to put out calls for ideas for our previously scheduled pitch events, the entries for which we will evaluate and provide feed back. One of the calls has been conceived as a response to Covid-19. We will share a selection of ideas with our partners with a view to development.

There are two calls:

1.  The Circuar Economy: If Sierra Leone was to ban single plastic use, what would you replace it with?

Please send an email with the Subject, FPN2020: Circular Economy. We will send you the template to create your pitch.

2.  Covid-19: Protection of Life - 

Freetown Pitch Night is inviting pitches from entrepreneurs with low-tech clean water, handwashing solutions and toilet facilities.

Please send an email with the subject, FPN2020: Covid-19 Protection of Life. We will send you the template to create your pitch.

Do not alter the font, color
scheme of the template or add any slides to the template.

Emails should be sent to:

We hope, once it is safe for us to congregate again, that you will have the opportunity to pitch your ideas. In the meantime, stay safe and stay home.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) situation- FPN

In light of the increasing spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) situation, and the Government of Sierra Leone advice saying no gatherings over 100 people, Freetown Pitch Night will no longer be held live at the British Council until further notice.
The next editions will be pre-recorded and shown on our facebook page. Kindly visit our facebook page or website for regular updates.
Steering Committee, The Freetown Pitch Night

Freetown Pitch Night 2020 Season! Where Ideas Come to Life Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

Zero Hunger:
How can we achieve Zero Hunger in Sierra Leone:
The SDGs aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030,
making sure all people–especially children–have sufficient and nutritious food all year.
This involves promoting sustainable agricultural, supporting small-scale farmers and
equal access to land, technology and markets.

Entrepreneurs have a role to play in meeting this goal. What is your idea for Zero Hunger?

Four entrepreneurs will pitch their idea on achieving SDG Goal 2.
March 11th 2020. British Council. Time 6pm (Doors open at 5:15)